Bundala National Park is an internationally important wintering ground in Sri Lanka for migratory water birds. Bundala harbors 197 species, the highlight being the Greater Flamingo, which migrates in large flocks. Bundala was designated a wildlife sanctuary in 1969 and redesigned to a national park on 4 January 1993. In 1991 Bundala became the first wetland to be declared as a Ramsar site in Sri Lanka. In 2005 the national park was designated as an abiosphere reserve by UNESCO, the fourth biosphere reserve in Sri Lanka. The national park is situated 245 km southeast of Colombo.
About 100 species of water birds inhabit the wetland habitats in Bundala, half of them being migrant birds. Greater Flamingo, which visits in large flocks of over 1,000 individuals, from Rann of Kutch of India, is being the highlight in the past. Other water birds that are present in large numbers include Lesser Whistling Duck, Garganey, Little Cormorant, Indian Cormorant, Grey Heron, Black-headed Ibis, Eurasian Spoonbill Asian Openbill, Painted Stork, medium-sized waders, Tringa subspecies, and small waders, Charadrius subspecies. Black-necked Stork, Lesser Adjutant, and Eurasian Coot are rare birds inhabit in the national park.
The forest is an important habitat for the endangered Sri Lankan Elephant, the largest subspecies of Asian elephants. Sri Lankan Sambar Deer, Sri Lankan Leopard, Wild boar, Indian Gray Mongoose, Sri Lankan Sloth Bear, Sri Lankan Axis Deer, Small Indian Civet, Golden Jackal, and Indian Crested Porcupine are the other mammals found in the park.